Monthly Overview of Violations in HURFOM Target Areas (December 2021)

January 4, 2022

HURFOM: Throughout the month of December, documentation by HURFOM found an increase in the number of those arrested, detained and killed. The junta’s violence has sparred no one as their onslaughts have trapped the most vulnerable and created new, worsening hardships for civilians. Predictions for 2022 estimate that millions more will be even deeper in poverty, including children. [Download the report in PDF Format]

The arbitrary arrests of innocent civilians have not eased. Since November 5, the junta has arrested more than 60 individuals in Dawei alone. About 30 have been released by ransom. Approximately 30 are still detained, and some have been charged with Panel Code 505 A, B, and the Terrorist Act. In HURFOM’s final briefing paper of 2021, “Trajectory of Terror,” between February 7 and 6 December 2021, at least 2,184 civilians were arrested and detained, at least 303 injured and 60 killed.

The military junta has intensified fighting in Burma’s ethnic states. With a dark history of over 70 years of warfare, the Burmese Army has never been sincere in their commitments to peace. This is evident across a trajectory of broken ceasefires, including with the Karen National Union. Fighting with junta-backed forces and the Karen National Liberation Army led to more displaced of thousands of civilians who remain in limbo – uncertain of their futures in Thailand where they face hostile policies and yet are unable to return to their homelands.

The path forward for 2022 is unfortunately grim as the situation on the ground is still in need of a timely and urgent response by the international community.

Monthly Overview of Violations in Target Areas (November 2021)

December 2, 2021


Across the month of November, the human rights situation continued to worsen. Mounting evidence of the military junta’s war crimes, and crimes against humanity are evident across the country. In HURFOM areas of Mon State, Karen State and Tanintharyi region, more civilians are being forcibly displaced from their homes due to a growing presence of soldiers. [Download Report in PDF]

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Monthly Overview of Violations in HURFOM Target Areas (September, 2021)

October 1, 2021

HURFOM: In September, the number of those arrested + detained in Mon State, Karen State & Dawei increased against the backdrop of systematic human rights violations, including #VAWG. Economic burdens and #COVID19 threaten local livelihoods. Sept overview in full:

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Monthly Overview of Violations in HURFOM Target Areas

September 2, 2021

HURFOM, Mawlamyine: Across the month of August, civilians in Mon State, Karen State, and Dawei experienced mounting levels of widespread human rights violations. Alongside the grievances and burdens, civilian resistance is still ongoing. August overview in full:

July 2021 Situation Overview: Monthly Overview of Violations in Target Areas

August 3, 2021

HURFOM, Mawlamyine: Flooding, COVID-19 and widespread arrests threaten civilian safety in Mon State, Karen State, and Dawei. The junta’s lawlessness and failure to protect the people has worsened the situation for the most vulnerable. Our monthly July breakdown spotlights these injustices, which are ongoing. Download here:

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Monthly overview of human rights violations in HURFOM target areas, May 2021

June 3, 2021

HURFOM, Mawlamyine: In May, the oppression faced by the people in HURFOM target areas increased. The junta is continuing to instill fear in the people by arresting and abducting innocent civilians. Since the army overthrew the democratically elected party on 1 February, the armed forces have killed eight people in Mon State, including an 11-year-old. Over 200 people have been charged, and evidence is being fabricated to justify the regime’s harsh crackdown. Children are no exception – they too are being targeted and becoming political prisoners. Subsequently, rural people are seeking more secure places, but there is nowhere safe to go under this illegitimate regime. HURFOM recorded seven cases of disappearances in Hpa-An, Karen State, since March 2021. Most are young people. Parents have expressed fears as they have lost contact with their children. HURFOM received three cases of seven missing young protestors from Paung, Myeik, and Hpa-an. Many young protestors, who were listed on ‘police wanted lists’, are in also in hiding.

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Yearning to be heard: Mon Farmers’ continued struggle for acknowledgement and protection for their rights

February 12, 2015


In October 2013, the Human Rights Foundation of Monland (HURFOM) released Disputed Territory, a report documenting the emerging trend of Mon farmers fighting for recognition of their land rights in the face of unjust land and property confiscations. The report analyzed specific barriers impeding their success, from weak land policy and inadequate dispute resolution mechanisms, to an absence of support from various sources. Read more

Report Brief: Disputed Territory: Mon farmers’ fight against unjust land acquisition and barriers to their progress

October 9, 2013


webversionOver the years HURFOM has produced a number of accounts highlighting the hardships faced by Mon farmers who became victims of land confiscation or unjust land acquisition.[1] In this report HURFOM follows-up on previously documented abuses and concentrates on an emerging new trend: farmers’ active and collective pursuits for rights to their land. For Full report, please view HERE. Read more

Infrastructure projects signal reform and reservations on the border

February 1, 2013

Infrastructure brings hope and fears to Eastern Burma

In the past few months, two remarkable infrastructure projects have been planned for the areas extending north and west of the town of Three Pagodas Pass on the Thai-Burmese border. The first entails rejuvenating a road that has been used as little more than a hunter’s footpath for over 60 years and connects the border crossing to Kyainnseikyi, a town 53 miles north. The other project is part of a high-profile proposal announced by Railway Minister U Aung Min on May 15 to reconstruct a more than 60-mile section of the “Death Railway,” a World War II-era rail line stretching 170 miles from Thanbyuzayat in Burma to Ratchaburi Province, Thailand. Read more

Mon State communities troubled by growing Ya Ba usage among teens and students

August 20, 2012

HURFOM: The use of Ya Ba, or methamphetamine, has been steadily gaining influence with young people in Mon State. While many adults share in the market for recreational stimulants, particularly manual laborers and migrant workers seeking to endure long hours on the job, the increase among students and teenagers is causing mounting alarm as communities witness rising health and social risks for younger generations.

Ya Ba, meaning “madness drug” in Thai, is typically manufactured as tablets containing a mixture of methamphetamine and caffeine. The drug had a surge of popularity in Thailand starting in the 1980s, but is less common there now following the government’s crackdown on drug trafficking in 2003. Today, Ya Ba still enjoys a wide consumer base throughout Southeast Asia. The pills are small, easy to transport, readily available, and highly addictive. However, the prolonged intake of methamphetamine can result in fatal kidney and lung disorders, brain or liver damage, and other mental and physical complications.

Burma’s drug problem has received intensifying scrutiny by regional and international press agencies over the past few months. Last week, Agence France-Presse (AFP) reported that Myanmar authorities were acknowledging the country’s “deepening drug crisis,” while a Bangkok Post article described Burma as the largest producer of methamphetamine in the world, and named certain armed ethnic groups and Burmese military units as being complicit in production and trade.

A monk from Warkyi Village in Apoung Township, Mon State, said, “Young people and adults who use [Ya Ba] come mostly from areas around Moulmein, Apoung Township, and Zin Kyait Township, although it was only discovered in Zin Kyait this year.” The drug’s prevalence has also been identified along the Thai-Burmese border, including Three Pagodas Pass in Karen State.

Interviews with 30 students, monks, and community members revealed that, currently, young people are often exposed to Ya Ba between their 10th grade and university-level studies, at ages ranging from 16 to 21 years of age. According to a 20-year-old university student in Ba-an Township, Mon State, “I started hearing about the drug when I was in grade ten. I began using in my first year of university, now I am in my second. It is easy to buy drugs from other students, but harder to buy from people outside the university.”

One young man from Thanbyuzayat estimated that 80 percent of the youth and university students in his township are using Ya Ba. “Drugs are very easy to buy in some areas, although I don’t know where they come from. The local drug users have good relationships with each other and know where to buy drugs on any given day.”

In Burma, one tablet of Ya Ba typically costs around 5,000 kyat (US$5), although students reported that heightened demand during the school year may inflate the price to 6,000 or 7,000 kyat.

Young people who can only afford small amounts of Ya Ba mix the drug into a drink with opium leaves and coffee. “This drink provides a light-headed feeling, the same as opium, and is cheaper. After people use the drug, their faces look strange and they feel no fear,” explained a youth from Thanbyuzyat.

A monk from Mudon Township described how people become careless and forgetful after taking Ya Ba, and expressed concern for students who exhibit reduced interest in their studies. He said many parents send money to their children for school costs, but it may be spent on drugs instead. “Students at university, people from Ye Township, and people from Mudon Township are using Ya Ba. If our young generation cannot be productive and work for their [Mon] nation, no one will protect our literature and culture. We seem to be losing [ourselves]. I think drugs are very bad for students because they cause a lack of interest in education and are dangerous for their health. It can affect their futures.”

A student from Ba-an University explained, “In the villages, young people are using Ya Ba for their jobs. They work very hard and if they take drugs, they don’t feel tired. Some students, like me, use drugs because a friend tells them to use it, so [they] try it. When the drugged feeling leaves us, we don’t remember what we learned or memorized. Even though students know the effects of drug use, they can’t control themselves and are still using it.” He added that, previously, drug users rarely talked about their habit in public, but now it is not uncommon to hear it discussed.

It is illegal to consume, sell, or purchase recreational drugs in Burma, but community members allege that the laws go largely unenforced. A former Ya Ba user stated, “Even though the government made selling drugs illegal, they just put signs up around town, and do nothing else to administer the law.”

According to a youth from Thanbyuzayat Township, “If we want to protect people from taking the drug, it will depend on state authorities as well as local authorities. They have to join together because some local police do not arrest drug traffickers. People who give money to the [local] police can do whatever they want, like selling drugs or [operating] gambling centers. State authorities sometimes order [the police] to arrest drug users, but they just arrest one or two to prove [their compliance] to state officials, and then take bribes and release the detainees.”

A university student from Mudon Township said, “There are so many kinds of drugs [available], such as Ya Ba, opium, and marijuana. The police ignore people using Ya Ba and focus on opium users instead. If they catch someone using Ya Ba, they will just take a bribe and let the person go.”

Some village-level authorities are also suspected of reacting slowly to criminalize drugs due to financial gain or conflicting interests. A resident of BaLuKyine Township stated that her village leaders do not apprehend dealers because they are being furnished with a cut of the drug proceeds. “This is the biggest problem among the youth, and I want the New Mon State Party (NMSP) to come and solve it. Of course, if they arrest the drug dealers, the result would hit them in the rice pot because they benefit from drug trafficking.”

According to a monk from MawKaNin village in Ye Township, “Before, when boys reached their teen years, they wanted to drink alcohol. Now, they try drugs first.”

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