March 2024: Monthly Overview of the Human Rights Situation

April 1, 2024

Injustices in Southeastern Burma are Ongoing as Enforced Disappearances Increase Alongside the Junta’s Illegal and Unjust Forced Conscription Law

Young people and their families in Burma awoke to devastating news in February 2024 following the junta’s announcement that it would begin enforcing mandatory military service for all men aged 18-35, and women aged 18-27 must serve for up to two years. The declaration followed a trajectory of losses by the Burma Army, notably in Karen and Karenni States as well as in Chin, Kachin and Shan States. These factors combined with the ongoing defections of high-ranking commanders and soldiers, as well as many troops surrendering to ethnic revolution organizations. The law mandating conscription was initially introduced in Burma in 2010, though it was never enforced.

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Since the attempted coup on 1 February 2021, young people have been at the forefront of a Revolution that refused to inherit another era of military rule. Women especially adopted new roles as they transcended previously held gender stereotypes. The Civil Disobedience Movement (CDM) was led by sectors dominated by women in education, labour and health care. When the revolution shifted from peaceful protest to armed resistance, women joined their male comrades on the frontlines, where they continued to participate in the shared quest for freedom.

These efforts have not gone unseen by the military junta, which has portrayed the youth as complicit in efforts to ‘destabilize the State.’ The regime-backed propaganda machine that has touted lies, fallacies and misinformation for decades has failed as the majority of civilians support the efforts of the revolution. As stated by the United Nations Special Rapporteur on the Human Rights Situation in Burma, “The tide is turning in Myanmar because of widespread citizen opposition to the junta and mounting battlefield victories by resistance forces.”

Now, the military is responding by trying to sabotage the futures of young people by forcing them to turn against their pro-democracy allies and take up arms. Those who fail to adhere to the law can be imprisoned for up to five years. Currently, more than 20,000 people have been unlawfully detained by the military junta for their revolutionary activities, according to the Assistance Association of Political Prisoners.

The first conscription week will begin after the next water festival period and will involve the forced enlistment of 5,000 people per month across the country. The junta also announced that 60,000 men would be called for military service each year.

The impacts of the unjust law are being felt already. HURFOM reported a worrying rise in the number of underage children in Mon State who are working to support their families. Due to the conscription law, youths are leaving Thailand and the revolutionary areas, creating a labour shortage unfortunately filled by children. There is an increase in the number of underage children working at restaurants, tea shops, bars, bike repair shops, grocery stores, and some other shops. Due to the political crisis, goods prices have rapidly increased, creating gaps in the labour market. In Mawlamyine, more and more child labour between the ages of 12 and 16 has been found, and their wages are being exploited.

Enlisting has already begun in the Human Rights Foundation of Monland (HURFOM) target areas of Mon State, Karen State and Tanintharyi region.  The junta has directed the wards, towns, and township administrators to send a list of those conscripted in Mon State.  They were instructed to send the list of people for military service in the last week of March. The ward/village administrators in Thanbyuzayat Township and Mudon Township have regrettably already collected the village lists.

Depending on the population, a village has 3–10 people per ward selected by the ward or village administrator. The list came with instructions for it to be completed by the fourth week of March: “Two men are collecting lists in the neighbourhoods. They inquire about the name of the head of the family, the number of families, gender, and age,” said a resident.

Within Kyeikmayaw Township, the ward and village administrators have been instructed to select recruits and send the list by March 20th. Similarly, in some of the villages in Chaung Zone Township, the administration has sent notices to summon men between 18 and 35, asking them to come and meet to be recruited in the Burma Army.

“The Mon youth are no longer in the village. Parents are more concerned. The issue of conscription is quite controversial. In some townships, there are censuses from the administrators. In some places, they are talking about people old enough to be called to serve in the military,” said a Thanbyuzayat resident.

Photos and videos have circulated on mass social media showing long queues of civilians lining up at various borders to evade the conscription orders. In a worrying response, Thailand’s Tak province, which borders Burma, has responded with increased security to stop the influx of people trying to cross the border. Thailand and other countries must show compassion towards those seeking refuge. With an active war prolonged by the junta and no education or livelihood opportunities, the enactment of the Conscription Law is only the latest deterrent in the quest to leave the country.

The New Mon State Party (anti-military dictatorship) has issued an order not to comply with the conscription demands as instructed by the junta for military service. It announced it would take decisive action against district administrations following the junta’s orders. The pro-democracy bodies, including the National Consultative Council, the National Unity Government, and the Revolutionary Army, have each announced that they will do the same.

In Dawei, on March 20, 2024, at 11 PM, as four military lorries arrived for a raid, the youth and elderly men from the village went into hiding. Locals reported that the military intended to arrest and force the men into mandatory service. Despite being ordered to meet with appointed village heads and conduct a thorough search, the troops left at midnight. They could not find the men on their lists. This incident has heightened alert among the youth, many of whom have reportedly fled the country in fear.

A list curated by Data for Myanmar found that the junta has gathered data, conducted conscription lotteries, and registered eligible men for military service in 172 townships. Fourteen are in Bago, seven are in the Tanintharyi region, six are in Mon State, and two are in Karen State.

Those who criticize the Conscription Law have also been punished. A case is being opened against 24-year-old Tun Lin from Mawlamyine under Section 505-A of the Penal Code because he shared a post containing the text of the conscription law and a revolutionary post on a social media page shared by a local media outlet.

The junta blocked traffic at the Maung Ngan ward’s Ah Yar Taw Road and Taung Paw Tan Street intersection. They stopped the victim on his motorcycle and checked his phone. They found a post that read: “Terrorist junta prepares to activate conscription law, summons all citizens.”

Freedom of expression is not a crime. The junta continues to crack down on civilians for their fundamental rights and freedoms while violating pro-democracy principles in an unjust war against the people.

While many plan to leave Burma, the junta has increased its security along popular roads and established checkpoints throughout the country to prevent people from doing so. A national identity card and travel history must be filled out when buying a ticket to travel at the highway gates in Mon State. Tickets are only sold to those who can show a recommendation letter from the police. This news follows increased checkpoints as people flee conscription. There has also been a worrying rise in cases of people being arbitrarily arrested and then forcibly disappeared.

From December of last year to February 29 of this year, the Mawrawaddy Navy arrested 24 residents of Phaung Taw, Ohn Pin, Kanbauk, Min Thar, and Tha Boot Chaung villages in the Kanbauk area; fourteen were released, and ten are still in custody. Among them are four female education staff members of the Civil Disobedience Movement (CDM). Most of the victims who were released are not in a normal state but are showing signs of mental illness, such as less speech.

However, according to residents, there have been 32 people abducted on the ground, but the names and villages of the victims cannot be confirmed. The details of these arrests are still being investigated. Alongside the increase in arrests has also included those of women who have been interrogated in military detention centers and not heard from.

A 48-year-old teacher affiliated with the Civil Disobedience Movement was arrested by a military junta in the Kanbauk village tract in Yebyu Township. A witness reported to HURFOM: “They raided the house and abducted her. They put a black hood on her head.”

The woman continued to disclose that the CDM teacher, Daw Mee Mee Zaw, was arrested by the regiment for allegedly teaching National Unity Government of Myanmar (NUG) education online.

Gendered violence persists across the country. Women face ongoing risks as the military junta increases its presence, particularly in areas like Karen State, where opposition to the Burma Army has been fierce and unrelenting. The violence is both targeted and indiscriminate. At the beginning of the year, on 1 January 2023, the junta forces patrolling a local area in Mon State shot two young women riding a motorcycle in the back. The two victims were both severely injured.

On 21 March 2024, HURFOM released our latest report, “Voice-Up: A Gendered Overview of the Human Rights Situation in Southeastern Burma.” This report documented and analyzed cases of violence against women by the junta between January and March of this year. This report is the first in a series that combines data collected by the Women and Child Rights Project team.

The findings show an alarming trend of targeted and indiscriminate violence. Throughout the reporting period in HURFOM target areas, at least eleven women were killed, twenty-three injured, seventeen were arbitrarily arrested and two cases of enforced disappearances. In Mon State, Karen State and the Tanintharyi region, we estimate that at least 145 women have been killed since 1 February 2021. In addition, 320 women have been seriously wounded. Nearly 1500 women have been unlawfully arrested and detained. Women in Burma are among the majority of those displaced and, as such, face incredibly high rates of being attacked as their villages and communities are destroyed by the Burma Army.

Meanwhile, indiscriminate violence, including airstrikes, landmines and the firing of mortar shells, is ongoing across all target areas. A woman lost her right leg after stepping on a landmine in Zahar village, Dawei, on the morning of March 11. The victim was Daw Hnin Mu, who was 60 years old and was in her garden on the east side of the Zahar village road.

“She used to go to her farm regularly. She stepped on a landmine while picking cashew nuts at her farm,” the local said.

From February to March 12th in Zahar village, three people were hit by landmines. All three who stepped on landmines were in their gardens east of the village road. A man from the town of Zahar was killed, and another man and Daw Hnin Mu had their legs amputated. Zahar village is about 2 miles from Dawei city and about three furlongs east of the village road, and the junta No. 302 Artillery Battalion is located there.

The senseless attacks on civilian lives deprive them of their humanity and their fundamental rights to protection and safety. HURFOM amplifies our calls to the international community for accountability mechanisms to be urgently enforced. This includes a referral of the human rights situation in Burma to the International Criminal Court, a global arms embargo and targeted sanctions against the illegitimate junta.

Karen State

In Karen State, attacks are increasing against civilians. HURFOM, as well as other local community-based organizations, are documenting an alarming rise in the number of attacks by the junta.

About a hundred more houses burned during the fighting in Kawkareik, Karen State. According to residents, the two sides—the military junta and a revolutionary force—have had intensified clashes. From March 1 to March 3, the fighting intensified in Kaw Ka Rate, and about one hundred homes in the city was hit and destroyed by an explosion of artillery shells.

On March 1, an attack was launched from the military junta’s base in the middle of the road into the No. 7 ward, where the People Defense Forces (PDFs) were. According to the locals, the junta and the PDF are fighting each other using drones.

During the combat, the junta launched artillery weapons on the PDF-controlled areas, and about one hundred homes of local civilians were hit and destroyed by the fire of artillery shells. In the clash in Kaw Ka Rate, which has been going on for more than three months, about 400 civilian homes have been burned and destroyed, and about 20,000 residents have been forced to flee the war.

A week later, on March 7th, starting in the afternoon, revolutionary coalitions attacked Light Infantry Battalion No. 355 and the military strategic location in Thinkan Ninaung, Myawaddy, Karen State.  Over four days, from March 8th to March 11th, the military junta responded with a bombardment of fighter planes and artillery weapons. Troops used aerial vehicles (UAV) or drones and launched multiple missiles.

The attacks included attacks on civilian areas. On March 8, at 11:00 pm, a plane bombed and fired artillery weapons at the new village of Thinkan Ninaung, and about 50 homes were hit by artillery weapons and destroyed by fire. The night before, the military bombed a plane, and at least 50 houses were damaged in the night in Thinkan Ninaung city due to the firing of rockets and artillery shells.

As a result of the battle, two senior men were killed, and more than ten other elders were injured when a bomb fell on the Thabawa Yeik Thar hospital in Mae Kanal village on the Myawaddy-Asia road. More than 170 elderly people have been urgently moved to Myawaddy and require help from A.T.A. (2) School in Moe Kok ward. Essential dry foods like rice, oil, and water, as well as medication and medical treatment, are needed because many older people forced to flee attacks are in deteriorating health.

On March 9th, in the morning, the junta bombarded Light Infantry Battalion No. 355, which was under the control of the revolutionary forces.  On March 11th, three more assaults within twenty minutes of each other took place after midnight. The people of Myawaddy town were attacked with at least a dozen bombs. They fired a series of rockets from the junta’s fighter jets around Lakhat Taung and Thinkan Ninaung.

Towards the end of the month, intense fighting erupted in Kaw Bein Sub-Town, Kawkareik Township, Karen State, on 24 March, with the junta deploying jet fighters and the Navy to fire heavy artillery.

The armed clashes began at 8 AM when revolutionary forces attacked a police station in Kaw Bein Town, leading to ongoing clashes. “The fighting continued into the late afternoon, with the military council using airstrikes, dropping around 40 bombs, and directly targeting the area. Two civilians were injured, and the airstrikes continued until the late afternoon,” a local reported. 

The military’s attacks have resulted in injuries to one resident each from Kaw Bein and Kaw Pauk villages, as well as damage to monasteries, nunneries, and some houses. Due to the fighting, residents from Kaw Bein and nearby towns such as Kaupauk, Dhammathat, and Tarana are trapped and face difficulties evacuating to safer areas.  The junta forces are preparing to launch an offensive from the direction of Dhammathat and Tarana Villages, which are under the control of revolutionary forces.

Mon State

Civilians in Mon State are under constant attack and fire by the junta. It is also one of the primary places where the junta has ramped up its campaign of arbitrary arrests and enlistment of civilians for forced conscription.

On March 2nd, 2024, the New Mon State Party (AD – Anti Military Dictatorship) arrested three local militia leaders from Kaw Pi Htaw village and Sein Taung Ward, Kamarwet City, Mudon Township, Mon State. In response, the 318th Artillery Regiment based in Ah Bit village, Mudon Township, arrested three women who are relatives of members of the NMSP (AD).

The detained women are 57-year-old teacher Mi Myint Than from Taung Poe village, the younger sister of Nai Kyi San, a leader of the NMSP (AD); 33-year-old Mi Ye Win from Kaw Pi Htaw village, the younger sister of a member of the NMSP (AD); and a 40-year-old woman who is the wife of Nai Ah Lin, a member of the NMSP (AD). Their whereabouts have been unknown since their arrest.

The NMSP (AD) announced that local militia groups must give up their guns and ammunition – if not, action would be taken against them. The current tension has caused fear among villagers.

Following the increase in policed checkpoints, two young men were shot dead for not stopping their motorbikes at Bilin Than Bridge Gate on the afternoon of March 11th. According to people close to the family, two youths were shot dead, and one was seriously injured at the Than Bridge checkpoint of a military junta in Bilin Township, Mon State, because they did not stop their motorcycles. The victims who died were Ha Shin, aged 30, and Joe Thein, aged 27, from Taung Soon village, Bilin Township. Ko Chit Ko, age 30, suffered from severe wounds.  The Than Bridge gate is a very high risk for travellers because the junta is known to extort those passing.

According to a report issued by the New Rehmonya Federal Force (NRFF) on January 31, 105 civilians were killed, and more than 900 were arrested since the attempted coup in Mon State.

The situation intensified in Mon State after the revolutionary forces seized a police station in Kaw That village on the evening of March 25. Following this, junta forces entered Kaw That and proceeded to Tarana village at  7 PM. By nightfall, over 100 soldiers arrived.

As both sides prepare for a possible confrontation, locals fear a severe escalation of violence. “We’ve been expecting a fierce fight since the police station was captured, and more people have been fleeing since the military started moving towards Tarana,” added a local.

Another added, “The Burma Army soldiers are already in the village, taking shelter in people’s homes. It’s like they’re using the villagers as human shields. They initially entered with about 60 troops, but by night, six more military lorries arrived, bringing their strength to over 100,” said the resident.

In the two days following the capture of the police station, the junta’s air force conducted bombings, and the navy engaged in heavy artillery fire, resulting in at least four civilians being wounded and damaging religious buildings and homes. As of 4 PM on March 26, locals report ongoing aerial bombings by the junta’s forces targeting the areas of Kawbein and Kawpauk villages in Kawkareik Township.

Another attack occurred on March 28, 2024, at 6:00 AM, in the peaceful village of An Ka Sin, Kyaikmayaw Township, Mon State. The military junta’s forces dropped bombs from a Mi-35P Attack Helicopter, causing damage to approximately ten homes. Residents reported that a Mi-35P Attack Helicopter was responsible for the bombing.”There was no fighting. They just bombed the village,” said a witness.

Tanintharyi region

The situation in the South of Burma is one of the most unsettling and underreported. Stationed junta troops regularly deploy indiscriminate attacks against civilians who live in fear of being struck by artillery shells. Dozens of homes were damaged this month as impunity continues to thrive.

On February 25, at around 8 a.m., the junta troops stationed at the Kyauk Mae Taung police station on the Dawei-Htee Khee road fired at least six artillery shells into the village of Taung Ton Lone. Among the injured, a 40-year-old man from Taung Ton Lone village was confirmed to have been hit by the shells in his hand, according to residents. “Shooting into the center of the village. We saw that some of them ran away after being hurt by the explosion of artillery shells.” A local said.

Mortar shells exploded on the newly constructed temple in the center of Taung Ton Lone village, damaging the roof and walls. Another resident said, “The monastery is newly built. They are firing wildly into the village.” At around 9 o’clock, gunfire subsided again, according to a Taung Ton Lone village villager. On February 24, at night, the locals reported that gunshots were heard and at least ten artillery weapons were launched from the side of the military junta.

At the end of February, the Mawrawaddy Navy Headquarters in Yebyu, Dawei, arrested a married couple from Kanbauk village. The detained person is U Ko Naing, a driver of PTTEP International Limited (PTTEPI), a Thai oil company, and Daw May Day, a shopkeeper.

The couple was captured on suspicion of supporting the People’s Defense Force (PDF) group. According to a local source, the victims are being interrogated at the junta’s Mawrawaddy Naval Headquarters, and their families were not able to contact them. The neighbourhood residents are also worried about being abducted following the recent rise in cases.

According to villagers close to them, three women, Daw Htet Htet Hlaing, Daw Cho Cho, and Daw Nyo Nyo, who were arrested between January and the second week of February, were released on the night of February 26.

From December of last year to February 29th of this year, the Mawrawaddy Navy detained 24 residents of Phaung Taw, Ohn Pin, Kanbauk, Min Thar, and Tha Boot Chaung villages in the Kanbauk area; 14 were released, and ten are still in custody. Among them are four female CDM education staff members. Most of the victims who were released are not in a normal state but are showing signs of mental illness, such as less speech. The majority of the 11 victims in custody have been charged under the Anti-Terrorism Act.

In the Kanbauk area, where the anti-military dictatorship movement was strong, the military junta imposed a night curfew. Also, it restricted the ability of two men to ride together on a motorcycle.

Meanwhile, attacks against the people have not ceased. The junta forces used aircraft and helicopters to attack and bombard the towns of Metta and Hein Dar Pyin village in the Eastern Forest area of Dawei Township Tanintharyi. At 10:30 AM, an aircraft dropped eight bombs. An hour later, another Mi-2-type helicopter arrived and dropped more explosives.

“There was smoke coming out of the place where it was dropped. The sound was different from an ordinary plane. We looked out and saw everything,” said a local witness.

The locals added that more than twenty bombs were being launched. Based on the residents’ statement, there is no fighting between the two sides in the area where the bombing is taking place. For five days, the military bombed the Eastern Forest area using fighter jets and helicopters. The damage caused by the air attack is still being determined.

At the beginning of March, on the 2nd, the military junta launched air assaults on Tha Yet Chaung Township, Dawei District, forcing residents from seven villages to flee their homes and find safe shelter. After a “Pyu Saw Htee,” a pro-military camp in Yaung Maw village, was attacked, the junta responded with a Mi-2 helicopter-led air assault. These circumstnaces forced residents from King Shae, Saw Phyar, Say Hpyat Gone, Moe Shwe Gone, Ann Pyin, Kyet Sar Pyin, and Kyar Inn villages to flee their homes.

“There were three air assaults. Ten bombs were dropped in one single air assault. Some villagers are still staying in the village with fear,” said a resident. The attack burnt down houses in King Shae and Moe Shwe Gone villages. The military base in Yaung Maw village also launched an indiscriminate artillery attack.

“The military fired until the evening of March 3. About 20 military troops were killed in the battle within an hour. They retaliated by launching both an air assault and artillery attack,” said a woman from Yaung Maw village. When fleeing from the air assaults on a motorbike, a woman from Say Hpyat Gone was killed.

In February, a military junta and a revolutionary force arrested more than forty civilians in Tanintharyi Region, with the most arrests in Yebyu Township. Thirty-five civilians live in Yebyu Township, five in Kaw Thaung Township, four in Pu Law Township, one in Myeik Township, and three in Dawei Township. The revolutionary forces also arrested six civilians, including the principal of the Technological University (Dawei).

It was confirmed that the five Kaw Thaung residents and six people from Yebyu Township have been released. However, the release of some people from the rest of the township has yet to be confirmed.

The people who were captured from Yebyu Township were abducted as human shields for entering the village, and the Mawrawaddy Navy also targeted and arrested five CDM education staff, including Kanbauk residents.

“CDM employees in Yebyu Township were planning to relocate. Now that the situation is calm, many have returned and are being arrested. We can’t live in the village anymore.” A Kanbauk local man said.

Sadly, children caught in the crossfire of violence are denied their childhoods. In Dawei Township, four civilians were arrested by a junta military column that could not be contacted. A child was killed during the battle, and at least five were injured. The four local war refugees who were arrested by a junta column in East Taw, Dawei Township, have not been released as of March 18th.

On March 9, the junta column headed towards Metta from Kyauk Mae Taung village, Dawei Township, abducted a woman who had fled the war and three men who were fishing in a stream near Ka Lip Gyi village. Those who were kidnapped were 18-year-old Ko Myint Myat Aung, 29-year-old Ko Lin Htet Kyaw Sor, and Ko Win Zaw Lay and Ma Win Than, who are over 30 years old.

“They went fishing because they had no food. They were arrested there,” said a resident. Those who were captured were people who fled the war from Taung Tone Lone village to Ka Lip Gyi village in the gardens due to the air strikes during the battle. From March 10th to the 15th, the junta column fought with the revolutionary forces around Metta.

After the fighting, on March 15th, when the revolutionary forces cleared the area, they found a boy, approximately 12 years old, dead from a gunshot wound and two wounded people who were abducted on the way and shot by the junta.

The identities of the dead child and the two injured are still unknown. The status of being alive and the whereabouts of those captured are yet to be confirmed. It is known from the revolutionary comrades that because of the junta’s bombardment, at least six houses in Metta town were destroyed, and not a single one of the town’s residents left the village and fled.

In the East Forest region, since February, fighting has been going on fiercely between the KNLA, the KTLA, the joint People’s Defense Forces, and the military junta. The junta is carrying out frequent bombing attacks with fighter jets and helicopters.

Worryingly, the trajectory of political prisoners being targeted in detention is still occurring. On March 16, at night, Ko Win Thiha, who was being held in Dawei Prison, was taken out in a car with a black hood covered and asked to show evidence of terrorism. On March 23, prison officials informed the family that Ko Win Thiha was shot and died when he tried to escape. These are lies told by the military to families to shamefully place the blame for the death on the victim.

“We know that the cremation of Ko Win Thiha has already happened. The family didn’t see his body,” said a person close to him.

Ko Win Thiha was sentenced to seven years in prison. He was killed while serving his sentence.  Two prisoners were taken outside the prison for interrogation, but the identity of the other one is unknown. Ko Win Thiha was arrested by the junta on February 7, 2022, at a hotel in Dawei City’s Shan Ma Lang District.

Between March 13th and March 15th, before the two prisoners were taken outside, the police and Special Branch (SB) raided Dawei Prison, claiming that they had found something on the phones. More than 20 prisoners, including political prisoners, were severely beaten. As a result, they sustained severe wounds to their heads and legs. Their faces were swollen, and their bodies were covered in bruises. They are now being held in solitary confinement.

According to a person close to the prison, approximately twenty people who were beaten for holding phones and accessories will be sentenced to an additional six months under the Communications Act. In March, the military junta conducted stricter inspections at Dawei Prison than before and dug bunkers and communication ditches in the prison compound.

There are a total of around 400 political prisoners in Dawei Prison, including two who have been sentenced to life imprisonment.


1.   A referral of the situation on the ground in Burma must be made immediately by the United Nations Security Council to the International Criminal Court.

2.   Concerted and coordinated action by global actors for an urgently mandated global arms embargo which would prevent the free flow of weapons into the hands of the murderous junta.

3.   Aviation fuel sanctions to put an effective end to the airstrikes in Burma, which have contributed to significant loss of life, particularly among innocent civilians.

4.   Targeted sanctions on military junta officials and their families and holds on their financial assets and possessions undercut their ability to conduct corrupt business dealings abroad.

5.   Strengthened and renewed protection mechanisms grant civilians who are vulnerable and at risk of assault a position where they can access justice referral and accountability pathways.

6.   Renewed and continued funding support for local organizations responding to the needs of their communities on the ground. Cross-border aid pathways must be accessed, and all local humanitarian channels must be recognized as efficient, organized, and at full capacity. Survivors must be granted assistance beyond statements of condemnation through support services, justice, and reparations.

7.   Foreign investors in Burma must immediately cease their operations and withdraw their involvement from all development projects in the country, including but not limited to airports, seaports, and cement businesses.

8.   An abrupt and immediate halt to the use of torture by the military junta, and further, we call for investigations to probe the unlawful deaths of civilians in Burma who have been tortured to death, as well as those who have been forced to endure trauma and long-term injuries as a result.

9.   For the International Labour Organization (ILO) or an international prison monitoring group to regularly visit the deplorable conditions across Burma’s prisoners in which political prisoners are being unlawfully detained. Women, especially, are at an increased risk of being sexually abused and violated during interrogations by the military. Previously, the ILO had taken part in these visits and made robust calls and recommendations.

10. For cases of conflict-related sexual violence, the international community must make justice referral pathways more accessible. HURFOM urges action to address documented cases of conflict-related sexual and gender-based violence in Burma, as well as the full participation of women’s human rights


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